Practitioner Technical Library

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In this video several Clinical Case Study Patients tell their story on how khapregesic® for Period Pain has put them in charge of their lives again.

Achieving pain-free First Periods

Naturopath Caroline Robertson, in this video, shares her experience with a young patient  experiencing life-changing relief from khapregesic® for Period Pain.

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Technical Reference Paper: Khapregesic for Period Pain

A New Botanical – Khaya senegalensis

The khapregesic®  botanical has modern scientific evidence and documented traditional medicine evidence dating back centuries…

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How to use the Technical Library: This library is designed as a starting point for further investigations. Although Khaya has many reported applications the focus here is menstruation and related issues. Each category, eg. ‘Background’, has several topics. Each topic has a general description then a reference that you can use to acquire the relevant source document. Most source documents are under author copyright hence the use of a citation only.

References to the BioActive Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File are categorised into conditions and diseases. The symptoms are summarised and coded for ease of reading.

Index of Topics:

  1. Background: Khaya senegalensis
  2. History: Khaya senegalensis
  3. Polyphenol Chemical Profile – Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatories and Pre-biotics
  4. Menstruation Mechanisms & Abdominal Disorders – Significant Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects

Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File:

  1. THM02 – Menstruation, Female reproduction, Sexuality

Background: Khaya senegalensis

Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A.Juss., a member of the Meliaceae family, is commonly known as dry zone Mahogany. A medium sized, evergreen savanna tree that typically grows 15 to 30m in height and 1m in diameter, characterized by its dark, shiny pinnate leaves, round fruit capsules up to 10cm in diameter, its dark grey, sometimes scaly bark is deep red coloured on the inside. The trees pictured here are the Australian medicinal Khaya senegalensis trees. They are sustainably harvested and certified organic.[Kubmarawa D, Khan ME, Punah AM, Hassan M. (2008). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from Khaya senegalensis against human pathogenic bacteria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(24):4563-4566.] [Onu A, Saidu Y, Ladan MJ, Bilbis LS, Aliero AA, Sahabi SM. (2013). Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats. J Toxicol, Article ID 803835: 9 pages] [Mouatt P., Dowell A., (2015) Macroscopic and microscopic botany and HPLC-MS profile with identification of major constituents for Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. leaf, seed and bark. Southern Cross University, Southern Cross Plant Science, Analytical Research Laboratory, Lismore, NSW Australia (commissioned by Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd)]

History: Khaya senegalensis

Khaya senegalensis is an invaluable source of potent medicines, with its use being traced back as far as 1000AD.[Neumann K, Kahlheber S, Uebel D. (1998). Remains of woody plants from Saouga, a medieval west African village. Veget Hist Archaeobot 7(2):57-77.]

It is now extremely rare, largely due to land clearing practices. It was listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species over 20 years ago. Since then land clearing in Africa has intensified, almost wiping out the species completely in the wild.

Australia, thanks to the research efforts of the Australian Federal Government research agency CSIRO and state governments’ departments of agriculture since the 1960’s, Australia is now the largest grower of pristine medicinal-grade Khaya senegalensis in the world.

[World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (1998). Khaya senegalensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e. T32171A9684583. https://dx.doi.org/10.2035/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T32171A9684583]

 

Polyphenol Chemical Profile – Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatories and Pre-biotics

The evidence for Khaya senegalensis, traditional and scientific, points to a botanical that eliminates ‘bad’ bacteria (2-5,12,23) and fosters an environment where ‘good’ bacteria can thrive. It does this by providing protective anti-inflammatory and extremely high antioxidant activity (3,9) together with ‘good’ gut bacteria food in the form of pre-biotic polysaccharides. All provided within its diverse polyphenol-rich chemical profile (22).

[(2) Kubmarawa D, Khan ME, Punah AM, Hassan M. (2008). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from Khaya senegalensis against human pathogenic bacteria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(24):4563-4566.] [(3)Kolawole OT, Akiibinu MO, Ayankunle AA, Awe EO. (2013). Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Potentials of Khaya senegalensis A.Juss (Meliaceae) Stem Bark Aqueous Extract. Br J Med Med Res 3(2):216-229. ] [(4)Onu A, Saidu Y, Ladan MJ, Bilbis LS, Aliero AA, Sahabi SM. (2013). Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats. J Toxicol, Article ID 803835: 9 pages] [(5)Tchacondo T, Karou SD, Agban A, Bako M, Batawila K, Bawa ML, et al. (2012). Medicinal plants use in central Togo (Africa) with an emphasis on the timing. Pharmacognosy Res 4(2):92-103] [(9)Androulakis XM, Muga SJ, Chen F, Koita Y, Toure B, Wargovich MJ. (2006). Chemoprotective Effects of Khaya senegalensis Bark Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer. Anticancer Res 26(3B):2397-2405. ] [(12)Ugoh SC, Agarry OO, Garba SA. (2014). Studies on the antibacterial activity of Khaya senegalensis [(Desr.) A. Juss)] stem bark extract on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi [(ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff]. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4(Suppl 1): S279-S283.] [(22)Zhang H. (2008) CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM THE STEM BARK OF AFRICAN MAHOGANY Khaya senegalensis (MELIACEAE). A PhD Dissertation, Clemson University, South Carolina USA ] [(23)Tan PV. et al. (2006) Susceptibility of Helicobacter and Campylobacter to crude extracts prepared from plants used in Cameroonian folk medicine, Pharmacology online 3: 877-891]

 

Menstruation Mechanisms & Abdominal Disorders – Significant Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects

Khaya senegalensis through both cellular and animal studies investigating extracts of bark has demonstrated that oral and topical administration results in significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated to be significant in the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, in particular COX-2 (9,18). Khaya senegalensis has also been shown to inhibit inflammatory pathways mediated by Free Radical ABTS, Caspase 3, AKT1, MAPK3 and EGF receptors (9,18). Studies of the aqueous bark extract have also demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity and suggest that this effect is mediated, both centrally and peripherally, through stimulation of opioid receptors (3,8).

[(9)Androulakis XM, Muga SJ, Chen F, Koita Y, Toure B, Wargovich MJ. (2006). Chemoprotective Effects of Khaya senegalensis Bark Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer. Anticancer Res 26(3B):2397-2405. ] [(18)Chen K. Castillo G, (19-30 Oct 2012). Blind evaluation in Cellular, Enzyme, Radioligand Binding assays, the activity of test compound BA201 (Khaya senegalensis bark extract). Eurofins Panlabs USA, Pharmacology Laboratories Taiwan, Study#: AB16492, (commissioned by Bioactive Solutions Pty Ltd a research partner of Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd)] [(3)Kolawole OT, Akiibinu MO, Ayankunle AA, Awe EO. (2013). Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Potentials of Khaya senegalensis A.Juss (Meliaceae) Stem Bark Aqueous Extract. Br J Med Med Res 3(2):216-229. ] [(8)Lompo M, Guissou IP, Dubois J, Dehaye JP, Ouedraogo S, Traore A, et al. (2007). Mechanism of the Anti-inflammatory Activity of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Int J Pharmacol 3(2):137-142.]

 

Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File: THM02 –  Menstruation, Female reproduction, Sexuality

Study 1.
Author: Adjanohoun, E. et al
Title: Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Mali. Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation Paris, France, 291 p., (1981)
Symptoms: H(026) painful menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, hypermenorrhoea, H(094) piles, haemorrhoids, H(104) abdominal pain, dyspepsia, enteritis, stomach aches, stomach pains, stomachic, gastric ulcer, stomach ulcer, colic, colitis, gastritis , gastralgia, heartburn, bowels, abdominal pain, colic, gut, intestinal complaint

Study 2.
Author: Adjanohoun, E. et al
Title:  Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in the People’s Republic of Benin. Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation Paris, France, 895 p., (1989)
Symptoms: H(116) amenorrhoea , emmenagogue, non-occurrence of the menses, to bring on the oestral cycle; H(091) anaemia, asthenia, cachexia, drepanocytosis (sickle cell), fatigue, fortifying, growth, kwashiorkor, performances, improvement, impotency, rachitis, reconstituant, weight loss, restorative, stimulant, tonic, weakness , waist troubles, virility, potency; H(104) abdominal pain, dyspepsia, enteritis, stomach aches, stomach pains, stomachic, gastric ulcer, stomach ulcer, colic, colitis, gastritis , gastralgia, heartburn, bowels, abdominal pain, colic, gut, intestinal complaint. 

THM02 Studies 3-9 form part of the extended BioActive Traditional Medicine literature review dossier under copyright. The complete dossier may be viewed under licence.

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