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Practitioner Technical Library – Khaya senegalensis

The khapregesic®  botanical has modern scientific evidence and documented traditional medicine evidence dating back centuries…

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How to use the Technical Library: This library is designed as a starting point for further investigations. Each category, eg. ‘Background’, has several topics. Each topic has a general description then a reference that you can use to acquire the relevant source document. Most source documents are under author copyright hence the use of a citation only.

References to the BioActive Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File are categorised into conditions and diseases. The symptoms are summarised and coded for ease of reading.

Index of Topics:

  1. Background: Khaya senegalensis
  2. History: Khaya senegalensis
  3. Polyphenol Chemical Profile – Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatories and Pre-biotic Polysaccharides
  4. Abdominal Disorders – Significant Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects
  5. Neurodegenerative Disorders – Evidence for Neuronal Cell longevity and Reduced Brain Inflammation

  6. Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File:

  7. THM01 – Gastrointestinal Conditions and Diseases
  8. THM02 – Menstruation, Female reproduction, Sexuality
  9. THM03 – Anaemia/Fatigue and related conditions & diseases
  10. THM04 – Arthritis & Muscular/Joint Pain

Background: Khaya senegalensis

Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A.Juss., a member of the Meliaceae family, is commonly known as dry zone Mahogany. A medium sized, evergreen savanna tree that typically grows 15 to 30m in height and 1m in diameter, characterized by its dark, shiny pinnate leaves, round fruit capsules up to 10cm in diameter, its dark grey, sometimes scaly bark is deep red coloured on the inside. The trees pictured right are the Australian medicinal Khaya senegalensis trees. They are sustainably harvested and certified organic.
[Kubmarawa D, Khan ME, Punah AM, Hassan M. (2008). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from Khaya senegalensis against human pathogenic bacteria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(24):4563-4566.] [Onu A, Saidu Y, Ladan MJ, Bilbis LS, Aliero AA, Sahabi SM. (2013). Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats. J Toxicol, Article ID 803835: 9 pages] [Mouatt P., Dowell A., (2015) Macroscopic and microscopic botany and HPLC-MS profile with identification of major constituents for Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss. leaf, seed and bark. Southern Cross University, Southern Cross Plant Science, Analytical Research Laboratory, Lismore, NSW Australia (commissioned by Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd)]

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History: Khaya senegalensis

Khaya senegalensis is an invaluable source of potent medicines, with its use being traced back as far as 1000AD.[Neumann K, Kahlheber S, Uebel D. (1998). Remains of woody plants from Saouga, a medieval west African village. Veget Hist Archaeobot 7(2):57-77.]

It is now extremely rare, largely due to land clearing practices. It was listed as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species over 20 years ago. Since then land clearing in Africa has intensified, almost wiping out the species completely in the wild.

Australia, thanks to the research efforts of the Australian Federal Government research agency CSIRO and state governments’ departments of agriculture since the 1960’s, Australia is now the largest grower of pristine medicinal-grade Khaya senegalensis in the world.

[World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (1998). Khaya senegalensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1998: e. T32171A9684583. https://dx.doi.org/10.2035/IUCN.UK.1998.RLTS.T32171A9684583]

Polyphenol Chemical Profile – Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatories and Pre-biotic Polysaccharides

The evidence for Khaya senegalensis, traditional and scientific, points to a botanical that eliminates ‘bad’ bacteria (2-5,12,23) and fosters an environment where ‘good’ bacteria can thrive. It does this by providing protective anti-inflammatory and extremely high antioxidant activity (3,9) together with ‘good’ gut bacteria food in the form of pre-biotic polysaccharides. All provided within its diverse polyphenol-rich chemical profile (22).

[(2) Kubmarawa D, Khan ME, Punah AM, Hassan M. (2008). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial efficacy of extracts from Khaya senegalensis against human pathogenic bacteria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7(24):4563-4566.] [(3)Kolawole OT, Akiibinu MO, Ayankunle AA, Awe EO. (2013). Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Potentials of Khaya senegalensis A.Juss (Meliaceae) Stem Bark Aqueous Extract. Br J Med Med Res 3(2):216-229. ] [(4)Onu A, Saidu Y, Ladan MJ, Bilbis LS, Aliero AA, Sahabi SM. (2013). Effect of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Khaya senegalensis on Some Biochemical, Haematological, and Histopathological Parameters of Rats. J Toxicol, Article ID 803835: 9 pages] [(5)Tchacondo T, Karou SD, Agban A, Bako M, Batawila K, Bawa ML, et al. (2012). Medicinal plants use in central Togo (Africa) with an emphasis on the timing. Pharmacognosy Res 4(2):92-103] [(9)Androulakis XM, Muga SJ, Chen F, Koita Y, Toure B, Wargovich MJ. (2006). Chemoprotective Effects of Khaya senegalensis Bark Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer. Anticancer Res 26(3B):2397-2405. ] [(12)Ugoh SC, Agarry OO, Garba SA. (2014). Studies on the antibacterial activity of Khaya senegalensis [(Desr.) A. Juss)] stem bark extract on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi [(ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff]. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 4(Suppl 1): S279-S283.] [(22)Zhang H. (2008) CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOACTIVE PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM THE STEM BARK OF AFRICAN MAHOGANY Khaya senegalensis (MELIACEAE). A PhD Dissertation, Clemson University, South Carolina USA ] [(23)Tan PV. et al. (2006) Susceptibility of Helicobacter and Campylobacter to crude extracts prepared from plants used in Cameroonian folk medicine, Pharmacology online 3: 877-891]

Abdominal Disorders – Significant Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Effects

Khaya senegalensis through both cellular and animal studies investigating extracts of both the leaf and bark has demonstrated that oral and topical administration results in significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Anti-inflammatory activity was demonstrated to be significant in the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, in particular COX-2 (9,18). Khaya senegalensis has also been shown to inhibit inflammatory pathways mediated by Free Radical ABTS, Caspase 3, AKT1, MAPK3 and EGF receptors (9,18). Animal (rodent) studies of the aqueous bark extract have also demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity and suggest that this effect is mediated, both centrally and peripherally, through stimulation of opioid receptors (3,8).

[(9)Androulakis XM, Muga SJ, Chen F, Koita Y, Toure B, Wargovich MJ. (2006). Chemoprotective Effects of Khaya senegalensis Bark Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer. Anticancer Res 26(3B):2397-2405. ] [(18)Chen K. Castillo G, (19-30 Oct 2012). Blind evaluation in Cellular, Enzyme, Radioligand Binding assays, the activity of test compound BA201 (Khaya senegalensis bark extract). Eurofins Panlabs USA, Pharmacology Laboratories Taiwan, Study#: AB16492, (commissioned by Bioactive Solutions Pty Ltd a research partner of Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd)] [(3)Kolawole OT, Akiibinu MO, Ayankunle AA, Awe EO. (2013). Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Potentials of Khaya senegalensis A.Juss (Meliaceae) Stem Bark Aqueous Extract. Br J Med Med Res 3(2):216-229. ] [(8)Lompo M, Guissou IP, Dubois J, Dehaye JP, Ouedraogo S, Traore A, et al. (2007). Mechanism of the Anti-inflammatory Activity of Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. (Meliaceae). Int J Pharmacol 3(2):137-142.]

Neurodegenerative Disorders – Evidence for Neuronal Cell Longevity and Reduced Brain Inflammation

Khaya senegalensis introduces the potential for longer living neuronal cells. With neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, the key mediator responsible for neuronal cell death is Caspase-3(21). Several independently commissioned laboratory studies on Khaya senegalensis bark have reported extremely high Caspase-3 inhibition(9). Notably, Caspase-3 inhibition was recorded at the extreme levels of 97%(18), 97%(19) and 95%(20) in three independently commissioned assays on three separate occasions. The 95% score – diluted from 100µg to 30µg denoting potency maintained at drastically lower doses. 

Several natural anti-inflammatory drugs have been identified in plant extracts used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain, fever and inflammation. In the past few years, the mechanisms of some of these natural compounds have been partly elucidated, and they are now being reconsidered for treatment of chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. In most cases these drugs work by inhibiting the transcription of COX-2 rather than its activity(25). This study confirms the Independently commissioned laboratory studies on Khaya senegalensis bark that reported extremely high levels of COX-2 inhibition at 95% and extremely high ABTS Radical Antioxidant score at 95%(18). It also confirms the strong anti-inflammatory activity when compared to the four popular NSAIDs of Hydrocortisone, Diclofenac, Dexamethasone and Indomethacin(3).

[(21)Khan S. et al., (2015) Implication of Caspase-3 as a Common Therapeutic Target for Multineurodegenerative Disorders and Its Inhibition Using Nonpeptidyl Natural Compounds, BioMed Research International, Volume 2015, Article ID 379817, 9 pages] [(9)Androulakis XM, Muga SJ, Chen F, Koita Y, Toure B, Wargovich MJ. (2006). Chemoprotective Effects of Khaya senegalensis Bark Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer. Anticancer Res 26(3B):2397-2405. ] [(18)Chen K. Castillo G, (19-30 Oct 2012). Blind evaluation in Cellular, Enzyme, Radioligand Binding assays, the activity of test compound BA201 (Khaya senegalensis bark extract). Eurofins Panlabs USA, Pharmacology Laboratories Taiwan, Study#: AB16492, (commissioned by Bioactive Solutions Pty Ltd a research partner of Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd) ] [(19)Teng C. Castillo G, (4-12 Dec 2012). Blind evaluation in Enzyme assays, the activity of four test compounds at 100µg/ml (Khaya senegalensis bark extract). Eurofins Panlabs USA, Pharmacology Laboratories Taiwan, Study#: AB17433, (commissioned by Bioactive Solutions Pty Ltd a research partner of Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd)] [(20)Teng C. Castillo G, (13-27 Dec 2012). Blind evaluation in Enzyme assays, the activity of four test compounds at 30µg/ml (Khaya senegalensis bark extract). Eurofins Panlabs USA, Pharmacology Laboratories Taiwan, Study#: AB17758, (commissioned by Bioactive Solutions Pty Ltd a research partner of Bioactive Laboratories Pty Ltd)] [(25)Maria Antonietta Ajmone-Cat, Antonietta Bernardo, Anita Greco, and Luisa Minghetti; Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Brain Inflammation: Effects on Microglial Functions. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2010 Jun; 3(6): 1949–1964. Published online 2010 Jun 14.][(3)Kolawole OT, Akiibinu MO, Ayankunle AA, Awe EO. (2013). Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Potentials of Khaya senegalensis A.Juss (Meliaceae) Stem Bark Aqueous Extract. Br J Med Med Res 3(2):216-229. ]

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Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File: THM01 –  Gastrointestinal Conditions and Diseases

Study 1.
Author: Adjanohoun, E., M.R.A. Ahyi, L. Ake Assi , L. Dan Dicko, H. Daouda, M. Delmas, S. de Souza, M. Garba, S. Guinko, A. Kayonga, D. N’Glo, J.-L. Reynal, M. Saadou
Title: Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Niger. Agence de coopération culturelle et technique, [Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Niger. Cultural and Technical Cooperation Agency] (A.C.C.T.), Paris, 250 p., (1980) From the data bank PHARMEL 2 (ref. HP 10)
Symptoms: H(006) laxative, purgative, constipation, cathartic, drastic,
H(104) abdominal pain, dyspepsia, enteritis, stomachaches, stomach pains, stomachic, gastric ulcer, stomach ulcer, colic, colitis, gastritis , gastralgia, heartburn, bowels, abdominal pain, colic, gut, intestinal complaint

Study 2.
Author: Adjanohoun, E., V. Adjakidje, M.R.A. Ahyi, K. Akpagana, P. Chibon, A. El – Hadji, J.Eyme, M. Garba, , J. – N. Gassita, M. Gbeassor, E. Goudote, S. Guinko, K. – K. Hodouto, P.Houngnon, A. Keita, Y. Keoula, W. P. Kluga – Ocloo, I. Lo, K. M. Siamevi, K. K.
Title:Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Togo. Agence de coopération culturelle et technique, Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Togo. Cultural and Technical Cooperation Agency] (A.C.C.T.), Paris, 671 p., (1986) From the data bank PHARMEL 2 (ref. HP 10)
Symptoms:H(008) diarrhoea, diarrhea, dysentery, cholera,H(068) internal parasitism, ascaris, amoebiasis, anthelmintic, bilharziosis, bot-fly , colibacillus, cysticercose, cococsidiosis, distomatosis, fascioliasis, fluke, gadfly, hookworm, helminthiasis, maggot, myasis, onchocerciasis, pin worm, roundworm, schistosomiasis, small intestinal worms (oxyure), tapeworm, teniasis, trichina, vermifuge, worm, worm infestation, intestinal parasites, craw, giardiasis,H(094) piles, haemorrhoids,H(104) abdominal pain, dyspepsia, enteritis, stomachaches, stomach pains, stomachic, gastric ulcer, stomach ulcer, colic, colitis, gastritis , gastralgia, heartburn, bowels, abdominal pain, colic, gut, intestinal complaint,

THM01 Studies 3-25 form part of the extended BioActive Traditional Medicine literature review dossier under copyright. The complete dossier may be viewed under licence.

Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File: THM02 –  Menstruation, Female reproduction, Sexuality

Study 1.
Author: Adjanohoun, E., M.R.A. Ahyi, J.J. Floret , S. Guinko, M. Koumaré, A. M. R. Ahyi, J.RaynalTitle:Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques au Mali. Agence de coopération culturelle et technique, – Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Mali. Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation Paris, 291 p., (1981) From the data bank PHARMEL 2 (ref. HP 10)
Symptoms: H(026) painful menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, hypermenorrhoea, H(094) piles, haemorrhoids, H(104) abdominal pain, dyspepsia, enteritis, stomach aches, stomach pains, stomachic, gastric ulcer, stomach ulcer, colic, colitis, gastritis , gastralgia, heartburn, bowels, abdominal pain, colic, gut, intestinal complaint

Study 2.
Author: Adjanohoun, E., V. Adjakidje, M.R.A. Ahyi, L. Ake Assi, A. Akoegninou, J. d’Almeida, F. 
Apovo, K. Boukef, M. Chadare, G. Gusset, K. Dramane, J. Eyme, J. – N. Gassita, N. Gbaguidi, E. Goudote, S. Guinko, P. Houngnon, Issa Lo, A. Keita, H. V. Kiniffo, D. K
Title: Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques en République populaire du Bénin. Agence de coopération culturelle et technique, (A.C.C.T.) – Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in the People’s Republic of Benin. Agency for Cultural and Technical Cooperation Paris, 895 p., (1989) From the data bank PHARMEL 2 (ref. HP 10)
Symptoms:H(091) anaemia, asthenia, cachexia, drepanocytosis (sickle cell), fatigue, fortifying, growth, kwashiorkor, performances, improvement, impotency, rachitis, reconstituant, weight loss, restorative, stimulant, tonic, weakness , waist troubles, virility, potency; H(104) abdominal pain, dyspepsia, enteritis, stomach aches, stomach pains, stomachic, gastric ulcer, stomach ulcer, colic, colitis, gastritis , gastralgia, heartburn, bowels, abdominal pain, colic, gut, intestinal complaint; H(116) amenorrhoea , emmenagogue, non-occurrence of the menses, to bring on the oestral cycle

Study 8.
Author: 
Togola, A., D. Diallo, S. Dembélé, H. Barsett & B.S. Paulsen
Title: Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali, (West Africa) in the regions Doila, Kolokani and Siby. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 1:7 (2005)
Symptoms: H(139) sexual incapacity, sexual asthenia, frigidity, aphrodisiac

THM02 Studies 3-7,9 form part of the extended BioActive Traditional Medicine literature review dossier under copyright. The complete dossier may be viewed under licence.

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Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File: THM03 –  Anaemia, Fatigue and related conditions and diseases

Study 4.
Author: Ainslie, J.R.

Title:A list of plants used in native medicine in Nigeria. Imperial Forestry Institute.University of Oxford, Institute Paper, n° 7, (1937)

Symptoms: H(091) anaemia, asthenia, cachexia, drepanocytosis (sickle cell), fatigue, fortifying, growth, kwashiorkor, performance improvement, impotency, rachitis, reconstituant, weight loss, restorative, stimulant, tonic, weakness , waist troubles, virility, potency

Study 11.
Author: 
Natabou Dégbé, F.

Title:Contribution l’étude de la médecine et de la Pharmacopée traditionnelles au Bénin: Tentatives d’intégration dans le système de santé officiel. Thèse pour l’obtention du diplôme de Docteur en Pharmacie de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop (Diplôme d’état), 138 p., Juillet 1991 [Contribution, the study of traditional medicine and pharmacopoeia in Benin: Attempts to integrate into the formal health system. Thesis for obtaining the Diploma of Doctor of Pharmacy from Cheikh Anta Diop University (State Diploma), 138 p., July 1991]

Symptoms:H(091) anaemia, asthenia, cachexia, drepanocytosis (sickle cell), fatigue, fortifying, growth, kwashiorkor, performances, improvement, impotency, rachitis, reconstituant, weight loss, restorative, stimulant, tonic, weakness , waist troubles, virility, potency;

THM03 Studies 1-3,5-10,12-14 form part of the extended BioActive Traditional Medicine literature review dossier under copyright. The complete dossier may be viewed under licence.

Traditional Herbal Medicine Evidence File: THM04 – Arthritis, Muscular Pain and Joint Pain

Study 3.
Author: Sawadogo, W.R., M. Schumacher, M-H. Teiten , M. Dicato , M. Diederich
Title:Traditional West African pharmacopeia, plants and derived compounds for cancer therapy Biochemical Pharmacology 84, 1225_1240 (2012) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22846603
Symptoms: H(113) anti-inflammatory, arthritis, articular pains, cramp, kidney pain, lameness, rheumatism, muscular inflammatory, myalgia, sciatic, joint pain, stiffness, sprained joint

THM04 Studies 1-2 form part of the extended BioActive Traditional Medicine literature review dossier under copyright. The complete dossier may be viewed under licence.

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